Using Artificial Intelligence to Reduce Gadolinium Contrast

This article orginally ran as an introduction to the Contrast Media Injectors comparison chart in the April 2019 issue. You can view the chart here.

One of the most controversial issues in radiology in recent years has been the use of gadolinium as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams. Some studies and high-profile cases have suggested trace amounts of gadolinium are retained in the body after an exam and may cause a number of side effects, including nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in the kidneys. A recent study out of Stanford University demonstrated how the need for gadolinium contrast could be reduced or eliminated by using artificial intelligence (AI)-based image reconstruction.

“There is concrete evidence that gadolinium deposits in the brain and body,” said study lead author Enhao Gong, Ph.D. “While the implications of this are unclear, mitigating potential patient risks while maximizing the clinical value of the MRI exams is imperative.”

Gong and colleagues created a deep learning algorithm, a form of AI, to analyze MRI datasets. With deep learning, a computer algorithm is shown large amounts of data and learns to recognize patterns and features in an image. The goal in radiology is for the computer to be able to identify critical findings in an image more or as quickly as a human radiologist.

For this particular study, the algorithm was shown MR images from 200 patients who had received contrast-enhanced MRI scans for a variety of indications. Three sets of images were collected for each patient:

• Pre-contrast scans, done prior to contrast administration and referred to as the zero-dose scans;

• Low-dose scans, acquired after 10 percent of the standard gadolinium dose administration; and

• Full-dose scans, acquired after 100 percent dose administration.

Using this methodology allowed the algorithm to learn the difference between full- and low-dose administration, with the pre-contrast scans used as a control. With this knowledge at hand, the algorithm was able to reconstruct an image as if it was a full-dose scan from a 10 percent dose image. Study results showed there was no significant difference between an actual full-dose image and a reconstructed full-dose image.

Gong and colleagues said their study results indicate that eventually, the need for full dose gadolinium contrast could be eliminated. “Low-dose gadolinium images yield significant untapped clinically useful information that is accessible now by using deep learning and AI,” he said.

Equally important as the research findings themselves was validating the outputs of the algorithm, because radiologists need to be able to trust the results they are receiving. The research team employed quantitative metrics to evaluate the improvement of the enhanced contrast via deep learning, including peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), root mean square error (RMSE) and structural similarity index (SSIM). Qualitative metrics like image quality and contrast enhancement quality were used to assess the results of the deep learning-based enhancement. A non-inferiority test was used to assess the performance of the AI method and validate the ability to reduce contrast dose without sacrificing image quality. “We showed that it’s doing a certain type of enhancement or denoising on the subtraction level. But the subtraction is not done manually because the algorithm learns how to do subtraction and enhancement. So the signal was already in there, but the human eye cannot see the difference — but the algorithm can,” said Gong.

The next steps involve deploying the algorithm in a clinical setting, where Gong believes it will see its greatest utility. He said the algorithm will be tested across a wider range of MRI scanners, and even with other contrast agents besides gadolinium. “We’re not trying to replace existing imaging technology,” he said. “We’re trying to improve it and generate more value from the existing information while looking out for the safety of our patients.”

Gong received a Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) “Trainee Research Prize — Resident” award for his research, which was presented at the RSNA 2018 annual meeting last November.

Related Content of MRI Gadolinium Safety Concerns

The Debate Over Gadolinium MRI Contrast Toxicity

VIDEO: How Serious is MRI Gadolinium Retention in the Brain and Body? An interview with Max Wintermark, M.D.

VIDEO “Big Concerns Remain for MRI Gadolinium Contrast Safety at RSNA 2017,” An interview with Emanuel Kanal, M.D.

Radiology Has Failed to Properly Assess or Track MRI Gadolinium Contrast Safety

Recent Developments in Contrast Media

FDA Committee Votes to Expand Warning Labels on Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents

European Medicines Agency Issues Update on Gadolinium Contrast Agents

ISMRM Issues Guidelines for MRI Gadolinium Contrast Agents

FDA: No Harm in MRI Gadolinium Retention in the Brain

VIDEO: MRI Gadolinium Contrast Retention in the Brain

Gadolinium May Remain in Brain After Contrast MRI

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Worldwide Graphene Market segmentation based on Manufacturers: Applied Graphene Materials plc, Graphenea S.A., Applied Nanotech Inc, Advanced Graphene Products Sp. z o.o., Haydale Limited, XG Sciences Inc, Graphene Frontiers LLC., Xiamen Knano Graphene Technology Corporation Limited, Grafoid Inc, ACS Materials LLC and Nanjing XFNANO Materials Tech Co Ltd.

Detailed study of emerging market segments in addition as a whole analysis of Graphene segments. The report is segmented into product type, application, and region.

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Recycled Polyester

Report Title: Global Recycled Polyester Market Insights, Forecast to 2025

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Recycled Polyester market size will increase to Million US$ by 2025, from Million US$ in 2018, at a CAGR of XX% during the forecast period. In this study, 2018 has been considered as the base year and 2019 to 2025 as the forecast period to estimate the market size for Recycled Polyester. This report researches the worldwide Recycled Polyester market size (value, capacity, production and consumption) in key regions like United States, Europe, Asia Pacific (China, Japan) and other regions.

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Recycled Polyester Market Segment by ProductTypes considering Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trends:

  • Post Industrial Recycled polyester
  • Post Consumer Recycled polyester
  • Market Segment by Applications considering Consumption Growth Rate and Market Share:

  • Clothes manufacturers
  • Geotextile
  • Carpet
  • Others
  • Major Key Players of Recycled Polyester Market Report:Mr. Dumpster,American recycling corporation,Recycling Revolution LLC,Long Island recyclers,Eco Rich LLC,Sterling superior services,Forerunner computer recycling,Atlanta computer recyclers,Sensible Recycling,Gloden recycling.

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    Table of Contents

    Global Recycled Polyester Market Research Report 2019-2025, by Manufacturers, Regions, Types and Applications

    1 Study Coverage

    1.1 Recycled Polyester Product

    1.2 Key Market Segments in This Study

    1.3 Key Manufacturers Covered

    1.4 Market by Type

    1.4.1 Global Recycled Polyester Market Size Growth Rate by Type

    1.4.2 Type I

    1.4.3 Type II

    1.5 Market by Application

    1.6 Study Objectives

    1.7 Years Considered

    2 Executive Summary

    2.1 Global Recycled Polyester Production

    2.1.1 Global Recycled Polyester Revenue 2014-2025

    2.1.2 Global Recycled Polyester Production 2014-2025

    2.1.3 Global Recycled Polyester Capacity 2014-2025

    2.1.4 Global Recycled Polyester Marketing Pricing and Trends

    2.2 Recycled Polyester Growth Rate (CAGR) 2019-2025

    2.3 Analysis of Competitive Landscape

    2.3.1 Manufacturers Market Concentration Ratio (CR5 and HHI)

    2.3.2 Key Recycled Polyester Manufacturers

    2.4 Market Drivers, Trends and Issues

    2.5 Macroscopic Indicator

    2.5.1 GDP for Major Regions

    2.5.2 Price of Raw Materials in Dollars: Evolution

    3 Market Size by Manufacturers

    3.1 Recycled Polyester Production by Manufacturers

    3.1.1 Recycled Polyester Production by Manufacturers

    3.1.2 Recycled Polyester Production Market Share by Manufacturers

    3.2 Recycled Polyester Revenue by Manufacturers

    3.2.1 Recycled Polyester Revenue by Manufacturers (2014-2019)

    3.2.2 Recycled Polyester Revenue Share by Manufacturers (2014-2019)

    3.3 Recycled Polyester Price by Manufacturers

    3.4 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion Plans

    Continued…

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    Report Title: “Global Graphene Market – Segmented by Product Type, by End-user Industry and Geography – Growth, Trends and Forecasts (2018 – 2023)”

    Global “Graphene Market (2018 – 2023) Report Provides Overall study of Approximate CAGR, Leading Manufacturers, Key Development, Market Dynamics and SWOT analysis for Key Players. The Graphene market is expected to register a CAGR of approximately XX% during the forecast period of (2018 – 2023)

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    The global graphene market is expected to witness a moderate CAGR during the forecasted period, 2018-2023. North America is expected to dominate the market during the forecast period, owing to the growing usage of graphene in touch screens and the requirement in printed electronics industry.

    Rising Demand for Printed Electronics

    The printed electronics market is one of the fastest growing markets globally. There are more than 3,000 organizations around the world, which are pursuing printed electronics. The printing speed is faster for graphene based inks. Furthermore, display applications include products, such as OLED, e-paper, thin-film transistor (TFT) backplane represent 44% of the global printed electronics market. It is expected to rise to over 48% by 2022. Hence, with more and more manufacturers looking to use the technology, the graphene market in various applications is expected to mature during the forecast period.

    Increasing Demand from Electronics Industry

    Graphene has significant electrical conductivity that makes it suitable for various applications in electronics industry. It is used in making high speed transistors, ICs and other semiconductor chips that has high-speed graphene circuit. It helps in achieving high performance in complex system and has ultra-low power consumption. The major advanced application is the dense data storage, where graphene is used as memory cells in chips such as earlier memory cards for phones and others. Moreover, graphene is a low cost material for higher speed printing for commercial usage as conductive ink. It could be recycled and is cheaper than silver. Hence, with on-going research and developments in this area, the market for graphene is expected to increase in the electronics industry and is expected to drive the market during the forecast period.

    North America to Dominate the Market

    North America is expected to dominate the graphene market during the forecast period, owing to the growing usage of graphene in touch screens and the requirement in printed electronics industry. The United States has witnessed a constant increase in the use of graphene over the recent years, owing to the significant growth of the electronics market. It is the largest market in the United States, in terms of size and is expected to remain as the leading market during the forecast period, because of advanced technology and R&D, with increasing demand from the consumer end. In addition with this, the aerospace sector in the region is shifting more manufacturing investments. Graphene is used as a composite for reducing the aircraft weight structure, used in micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) and in hybrid coatings to help prevent lightning strike. Hence, the growing demand for graphene is expected to drive the market over the forecast period.

    Major Players: Advanced Graphene Products, PEN Inc. (Applied Nanotech Inc.), Graphenano, Graphenea SA, and XG Sciences Inc., amongst others.

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