Comment: Panasonic Industry and the WARR Hyperloop, accelerating tomorrow’s transportation

The event was hosted by SpaceX and its founder, Elon Musk (pictured), at the company’s Hawthorne, California headquarters, as it has been since its …

Comment: Panasonic Industry and the WARR Hyperloop, accelerating tomorrow’s transportation

On July 22nd 2018 WARR Hyperloop did it again, writes Alexander Schultz-Storz of Panasonic Industry Europe – the team from the Technical University of Munich won the Hyperloop Pod Competition for the third consecutive time.

The event was hosted by SpaceX and its founder, Elon Musk (pictured), at the company’s Hawthorne, California headquarters, as it has been since its inauguration. To begin at the beginning…

See also: TUM Munich team wins 2018 Hyperloop Pod competition

For years Californian political and business leaders have discussed the merits of a high-speed rail system between Los Angeles and San Francisco. Frustrated by the debate and alarmed by the costs, environmental impact and energy requirements for this new rail line, Elon Musk, the well-known entrepreneur behind Tesla and SpaceX, proposed a radical new mode of transportation: Hyperloop.

The idea behind Hyperloop is simple: propel passengers between cities at speeds of over 970km/h in capsules that float in partial vacuum tubes. With less air resistance, pods can reach and maintain supersonic speeds – powered entirely by solar energy – transporting passengers from Los Angeles to San Francisco in just 30 minutes.

To quote Alexander Schultz-Storz, Division Director, Solution Competence Division at Panasonic Industry:

“Beyond its economic benefits, Hyperloop offers a significant reduction in carbon emissions. The Hyperloop concept is intended to replace billions of commuter car passenger miles, as well as free up airspace. As futuristic as it sounds, this concept is not a pipe dream: the pace of innovation is notably increasing, with 2018 already seeing several big announcements, such as Virgin’s Hyperloop One.”

While the idea may be simple, the engineering isn’t. Therefore in June 2015, SpaceX announced an open competition for independent and university engineering teams to design a half-scale Hyperloop pod and have it tested on a track at SpaceX.

What started out as Elon Musk’s ambitious, possibly far-fetched, concept has transformed into the next obvious step for transportation. Students and engineers around the world have taken on the technical challenges involved, and, in the spirit of collective progress, all intellectual property produced during the SpaceX Hyperloop Pod Competition will be publicly available, ensuring that nothing stands in the way of implementing a full-scale Hyperloop, thus delivering a fundamentally better transportation future.

An academia-industry interface is crucial for success in this endeavour. This interface needs to be characterized by an interactive and collaborative exchange between academic institutions and the industrial sector. This is especially important if there is no real reference design available yet but if it has to be started from scratch.

Martin Dziura, Scientific Director, TUM: “As soon as companies and universities work hand in hand to push the frontiers of knowledge, they become a catalyst for innovation and economic growth. Industry partnerships give students and faculties additional funding. By striking up corporate partnerships, universities have more resources to undertake research and they are able to diversify their areas of research.”

“But it’s not all about the financial support. The more significant contribution is gaining industry feedback and guidance. Universities know that some problems can’t be solved in isolation in a lab, and industry feedback is key to taking an invention or product from conception to market. Panasonic Industry has a wide range of technologies that can be found in our latest WARR Hyperloop pod.”

On Board the WARR Hyperloop

To levitate, usually either air bearings, (basically blasting air to levitate, like air hockey tables) or magnets are used. This results in levitation. Linear induction motors then propel the pod along the tube. Pods get pushed at high speed and will stay at a high speed a long time because there is no friction from the ground and they are in a vacuum. Since there is very low friction from the air, it is possible to cruise for miles.

For the design of the WARR Hyperloop, the team decided on a third method: using wheels for acceleration until liftoff speed is reached or braking is required.

“Our design concept is influenced in many ways by the e-mobility sector. On that basis, a co-operation with Panasonic Industry was a logical and necessary step for us. Using an electric motor guarantees the best possible acceleration, but it also creates safety requirements for our components that are typical of electric vehicles,”explains Martin Riedel, Technical Lead, WARR Hyperloop

Since the battery voltage of the pod is several hundred volts, the electrical system must meet essential safety requirements. The electromechanical components that provide the necessary security when loading and driving play an essential role in this context. This is where grid isolation relays are used to interrupt or close the corresponding circuits.”

Here’s a more detailed look at the areas and design-in questions where Panasonic Industry’s products and technical support helped:

EX-L221

The most challenging aspect of the cooperation between Panasonic Industry and the WARR Hyperloop team was the selection of different sensors to monitor the performance of the pod and guarantee its safety.

Riedel continues: ”The laser light sensor from Panasonic Industry determines the position of the pod inside the tube. To achieve this, the laser must read several markings within the tube while it accelerates with a maximum speed of 600km/h. The specific design challenge for us is not only that the laser reads the mark but also that this information is processed correspondingly quickly.

The detection of these marks had the strictest timing requirements of any task: the 101.6mm wide marks pass a laser sensor in 610µs at a relative speed of 167 m/s, which demands a 1.64kHz minimum sampling rate. This information is then used to determine the best place to initiate braking. For us, the key benefits of Panasonic Industry’s laser sensor were its robustness when coping with movement and environmental influences, its miniature size and its light weight.”

HG-C1050

To achieve perfectly smooth sliding of the pod, it is essential that the magnets and the vehicle always maintain the same distance from the rails. If the vehicle leans or inclines, efficiency, speed, and smoothness are impaired – possibly dramatically. Maintaining the correct position with respect to the rails facilitates easy and uncomplicated measurement and recording of pod behavior and its driving dynamics without adding weight and design costs.

Continues Riedel: ”What caught our attention were the specifications of the HG-C1050: it has a very precise and compact casing, a combination which we had never seen before. This enables us to measure the relative position of the pod to the rail – vital information when we come to analyze driving dynamics and vehicle behavior. We have to ensure that we made the right design decision…and this vehicle behaves as planned and expected.”

Relays

Reducing size and weight and saving energy were the first design parameters WARR Hyperloop had defined for itself during the construction and planning of their pod. In the effort to minimalize weight and increase battery performance, a lot of attention was given to improving the efficiency of the AC-to-DC power conversion and distributed power generation through various subsystems.

This is where relays had to come into play, since they function as a switching device used to control the path of electricity, thereby controlling the circuit the voltage is directed to. Panasonic has been meeting the highly specialized power needs of the industrial and automotive markets with a vast range of innovative and economic relays for more than 30 years.

Riedel added: “We picked Panasonic’s PA-N for controlling our subsystems due to its high-density mounting, low operating power and small casing, which measures only 20 x 5 x 12.5mm.”

Thick Film Chip Resistors

Riedel concludes: “In the electronic battery control systems for charging and cell balancing, we are looking for any advantages that can be gained in the critical areas of safety and reliability – both vital factors in securing a pole position for our Hyperloop pod. Panasonic supported the WARR Hyperloop by providing Thick Film Chip Resistors.

Lithium batteries are very susceptible to over-charging or discharging at an accelerated rate. Resistors are used to improve battery efficiency; specifically for monitoring the power from the cell to the electric motor and for regenerative braking, where they control the current in and out of the battery.

Panasonic’s new Thick Film Resistors are ideal for this application, thanks to a high power capability of up to 0.6 W and resistance values down to 0.001 Ω, making them suitable as balancing resistors, enabling optimum charging by equalizing voltage levels across the battery system.

Panasonic’s sensors, resistors as well as relays play an essential role in the WARR Hyperloop pod and in achieving the team’s goals of miniaturization and increased efficiency. Together with Panasonic’s, engineering know-how and product guidance and financial support a highly successful pod design was created and who knows, maybe we will even see elements of that design in the Hyperloop that might eventually transport us from Los Angeles to San Francisco in the future.

Alexander Schultz-Storz, Division Director, Cross Value Division, Panasonic Industry Europe

View this WARR Hyperloop gallery, and a video further below:

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How Much Is SpaceX Stock Worth?

Elon Musk has a plan. Actually, the CEO of SpaceX has several plans: He wants to continue supplying the International Space Station with food and …

Elon Musk has a plan.

Actually, the CEO of SpaceX has several plans: He wants to continue supplying the International Space Station with food and other consumables as far out as 2030, resume flights by American astronauts aboard American-built spacecraft, build a global satellite broadband network, and eventually put humans on Mars.

All of these plans, however, will cost money to develop the technologies to implement and continue driving down the cost of doing business in space. To get that money, SpaceX has been working diligently to raise debt and equity financing for its business. Fortunately for mankind’s space ambitions, it looks like SpaceX is succeeding at this — and fortunately for investors, every time SpaceX approaches its financiers for more money, it reveals a little bit more about its business, its finances, and its valuation.

Rocket landing on a drone ship

X marks the spot where we discover how much SpaceX’s treasure is worth. Image source: Getty Images.

A little bit of debt …

Case in point: In November, SpaceX secured a $250 million loan from “a select group of investors,” money it intends to use to continue development of its “Super Heavy” launch vehicle and “Starship” interplanetary rocketship. That was a nice chunk of change — there was just one problem.

SpaceX had apparently sought to raise three times as much cash — $750 million. At the time, it wasn’t entirely clear why SpaceX settled for the lower sum. (Wall Street banks were reportedly more than willing to ante up the entire $750 million Musk sought). But the reason for SpaceX’s decision to take on less debt soon became clear.

… and a whole bunch of equity

SpaceX would raise the rest of its sought-after $750 million with a stock offering. As The Wall Street Journalreported last month, SpaceX is in the final stages of selling $500 million worth of stock to its “existing [private] shareholders,” plus a new (also private) investor, Scottish money management firm Baillie Gifford & Co.

What we’ve learned about how much is SpaceX worth

So mission accomplished for SpaceX. But as good as this news is for SpaceX, it’s arguably even more important for investors who want to know how the market is valuing SpaceX today, on the off chance the company eventually files for an IPO. SpaceX revealed details on its business during the course of negotiations with its debt and equity counterparties.

As the Journal reports, SpaceX is selling $500 million worth of new shares to its private investors at “$186 a share.” For this math to work, SpaceX must be selling about 2.7 million shares. We also learn that this latest funding round is being conducted “at a $30.5 billion valuation.” From this fact, we can deduce that those 2.7 million shares represent a 1.6% interest in SpaceX. A little more elementary math and we can further determine that SpaceX will have roughly 165 million shares outstanding after completion of this equity issuance.

It never rains, but it pours

To the best of my knowledge, this is the first time SpaceX has ever revealed enough information about its capital structure to be able to pin an accurate share count, share price, and market capitalization on SpaceX stock — and the deluge of new data doesn’t end there.

From TheWall Street Journal‘s reporting, we also learned that in the 12 months ended Sept. 2018, SpaceX generated $2.5 million in revenue and earned interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) of roughly $270 million. That works out to a 10.8% EBITDA margin that SpaceX is earning on its revenue.

This number, by the way, is remarkably close to the 13% EBITDA margin earned by Boeing, and the 13.5% margin earned by Lockheed Martin — SpaceX’s two biggest rivals in spaceflight — despite the fact that SpaceX charges much, much less for its rocket launches than its rivals. This suggests that SpaceX has the capability to turn GAAP-profitable essentially anytime it wants, simply by raising its prices a bit or, conversely, by lowering its costs — for example by launching reusable rockets more frequently.

In that regard, it’s worth pointing out that through mid-January 2019, SpaceX has launched 40 rockets in a row successfully, and has relanded and recovered for reuse 33 of those rockets’ first stages. To date, only a handful of these rockets have actually been reused — but the more of them that are, the more SpaceX’s profits should improve, and the more SpaceX stock should be worth.

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Big Texas Will Be Production Site For SpaceX’s Biggest Rocket

SpaceX said it will develop and build its biggest spacecraft to date — Starship/Super Heavy – at its facility in South Texas instead of at the Port of Los …

SpaceX said it will develop and build its biggest spacecraft to date — Starship/Super Heavy – at its facility in South Texas instead of at the Port of Los Angeles as announced in April 2018.

Starship/Super Heavy was previously known as the BFR (for Big Falcon Rocket).

Development and manufacturing of the company’s Falcon 9/Heavy, Merlin and Raptor will continue at the company’s Hawthorne, California headquarters. The announcement of the move to South Texas, however, did not eliminate the possibility SpaceX still plans to develop an oceanside factory in the near future for Starship/Super Heavy.

What is clear is that SpaceX will assemble and test its Starship prototype in Texas instead of California.

To streamline operations, SpaceX is developing and will test the Starship test vehicle at its site in south Texas, said a SpaceX statement. The company said this decision does not impact its current manufacture, design, and launch operations in Hawthorne and Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. SpaceX will, however, continue recovery operations of its reusable Falcon rockets and Dragon spacecraft at the Port of Los Angeles.

SpaceX is making a lot of noise about the development of the Starship “hopper,” a prototype of Starship/Super Heavy. The first short test flights for the hopper are to begin this year.

Hopper will also be built in Texas (where SpaceX has a launch site) because the massive size of these launch vehicles makes them very difficult to transport by sea or land.

In 2018, SpaceX COO and President Gwynne Shotwell revealed that the estimated cost of moving a BFR-sized rocket from the company’s main Hawthorne factory to the Port of Los Angeles would average $5 million for a one-way trip.

She said this amount is almost 10% of the list price of an entirely new Falcon 9 rocket ($62 million). A BFR is nine meters tall.

As a result, SpaceX decided to build a permanent factory at a Port of Los Angeles dock known as Berth 240. Locating at the Port of Los Angeles would have allowed SpaceX to build a manufacturing facility on a 19-acre plot on Terminal Island.

The initial plan was for the huge BFRs to be then transported via barge and the Panama Canal to Cape Canaveral in Florida.

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SpaceX Laying-off 10% of Employees as Launch Business Wanes

Close to 600 employees of SpaceX have lost or will lose their jobs over the next few days as the space transportation company founded by Elon Musk …

Close to 600 employees of SpaceX have lost or will lose their jobs over the next few days as the space transportation company founded by Elon Musk fights to stay in business as the number of rocket launches is expected to drop this year.

The total of those being let go represents close to 10% of the company’s total workforce of some 6,000 employees. Most of those to be fired work at the company’s headquarters and rocket factory located at Hawthorne, California.

Analysts say this mass firing is the first large-scale reduction of its workforce since SpaceX was founded in 2002. The company, however, has laid-off many employees before but not on this scale.

In a statement, SpaceX said its ability to continue delivering for its customers and to succeed in developing interplanetary spacecraft and a global space-based Internet means “SpaceX must become a leaner company.”

And in a sop to the employees it fired, SpaceX said it is grateful for everything they’ve accomplished and their commitment to SpaceX’s mission. SpaceX said the employee firings were the result of the extraordinarily difficult challenges ahead and would not otherwise be necessary.

In late 2018, SpaceX President and CEO Gwynne Shotwell warned there might be a slowdown in the number of satellites to be launched by firms in the geo-telecommunications industry. These commercial launches are the lifeblood of SpaceX.

SpaceX says it costs more than $60 million to launch a Falcon 9 rocket on a commercial mission such as deploying a telecommunications satellite to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). On the other hand, it will cost a client some $90 million to use the more powerful Falcon Heavy rocket.

“Next year (2019) you won’t see as many launches as you see in 2018,” said Shotwell. “2019 is a lower-cadence year.”

Ironically, Space X had its best year in 2018. It successfully launched 21 missions, giving it the U.S. record for the most number of launches in a year.

It’s always unfortunate when there are large layoffs, noted Jan Vogel, executive director of the South Bay Workforce Investment Board.

He said the board is in touch with SpaceX and is ready to provide transitional services to employees that have been let go. We’re ready to help people, said Vogel.

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Rocket Report: Iranian booster failure, SpaceX cuts, Vulcan near final design

Welcome to Edition 1.32 of the Rocket Report! As we get deeper into the new year, the launch business is starting to heat up, especially among the …
A Falcon 9 rocket launches from Vandenberg Air Force Base.
Enlarge/ A Falcon 9 rocket launches from Vandenberg Air Force Base.

Welcome to Edition 1.32 of the Rocket Report! As we get deeper into the new year, the launch business is starting to heat up, especially among the smaller rockets. Companies are eyeing launch sites, securing launch contracts, and scrambling on development of their rockets. This is simply going to be a huge year for small-sat launchers, and we’re going to do our best to stay on top of everything.

As always, we welcome reader submissions, and if you don’t want to miss an issue, please subscribe using the box below (the form will not appear on AMP-enabled versions of the site). Each report will include information on small-, medium-, and heavy-lift rockets as well as a quick look ahead at the next three launches on the calendar.

Relativity Space to launch from historic Florida site. The company that aspires to 3D print almost the entirety of its rockets has reached an agreement with the US Air Force to launch from historic facilities at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. Relativity Space said Thursday it has a multiyear contract to build and operate its own rocket launch facilities at Launch Complex 16, Ars reported.

Up to a 25-year lease … Under terms of the competitively awarded agreement, the site will officially be a “multiuser” facility for five years. However, if Relativity meets certain milestones and begins regularly launching rockets, it will be able to convert the agreement into a 20-year, exclusive right to use the launch site. “This was definitely our top choice, I would say by quite a bit,” Relativity co-founder Tim Ellis said. “We looked at every launch site in the United States.”

Iranian small-satellite launch fails. The third stage of an Iranian Simorgh rocket failed Tuesday, preventing the booster from putting the 90kg Payam satellite into orbit. Prior to the launch, Iran said it intended to send two nonmilitary satellites, Payam and Doosti, into orbit. The Payam, which means “message” in Farsi, was an imagery satellite that Iranian officials said would help with farming and other activities, the AP reports.

US concerned about launch program … US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo has alleged that Iran’s space program is serving as a precursor to the development of a missile capable of carrying a nuclear weapon to the mainland United States. Regardless, it is not clear how this failure will affect the country’s plans to launch the Doosti satellite. The Simorgh rocket used in Tuesday’s launch attempt is believed to have a capacity of about 350kg to low-Earth orbit. (submitted by Ken the Bin)

China firm scores smallsat launch win. Via the China Great Wall Industry Corporation, China’s new Long March 6 rocket has won a major commercial launch contract, with an agreement for up to six flights over two years to deploy 90 small remote-sensing satellites for Argentina-based Satellogic. The contract comes amid increased competition in the smallsat launch market, Ars notes.

Launch availability cited … Emiliano Kargieman, the founder and chief executive of Satellogic, said the company looked at a range of launch providers, including Rocket Lab and other emerging companies. “With all of the small-launch companies coming online, we will definitely consider them for future plans,” Kargieman said. “But for the rollout we need to do in the next 24 months, this relationship gives us the best option for meeting that goal.” China-based Tencent has helped raised money for Satellogic.

Virgin eyes Guam launch site with interest. Although no final agreements have been signed, senior Virgin Orbit executives say they are looking closely at flying Cosmic Girl missions from Guam as a base for their LauncherOne rocket. “We have looked around,” Richard DalBello, vice president of business development and government affairs for Virgin Orbit, told The Guam Daily Post. “There are other alternatives,” but “we believe that Guam is the best alternative.”

A few weeks at a time … The Virgin officials told the paper they envision flying the Cosmic Girl aircraft into the US territory for a period of four to eight weeks, during which the company would fly a series of missions. The Cosmic Girl would then return to the continental United States. The company and the Guam airport authority have been in talks for nearly a year, and the A.B. Won Pat Guam International Airport Authority still needs to obtain a spaceport license from the FAA. (submitted by BH)

SpaceX cuts workforce to get “leaner.” SpaceX will lay off up to 10 percent of its work force, the company said Friday evening. The company characterized the job cuts as “a strategic realignment” designed to ensure it is positioned to succeed for the long term, Ars reported. Although some reports said up to 850 people were terminated from a workforce of about 6,000, SpaceX said that the cuts were capped at 10 percent.

From development to operations … “To continue delivering for our customers and to succeed in developing interplanetary spacecraft and a global space-based Internet, SpaceX must become a leaner company,” a company official said. These cuts were not unexpected. SpaceX had grown rapidly, needing to engineer Falcon 9 various iterations, Dragon, Dragon 2, Falcon Heavy, Starlink, Starship, and more. Now it is done with development of a lot of those projects and no longer needs to build hundreds of Merlin engines or dozens of Falcon 9 cores a year. Same with Dragons. So SpaceX needs fewer people in production. When you hear about low-cost rockets and reuse, that means fewer people are needed.

Arianespace faces a challenging year. Amid increasing competition and a downturn in geostationary-satellite orders, Arianespace must find commercial customers for its new Ariane 6 rocket. “For Ariane 6, we aim at 14 launches [for the first model], so production has to start very soon for these, and this has to be ordered very rapidly,” Daniel Neuenschwander, ESA’s director of space transportation, said this week. Seven of those launches are meant to be commercial, SpaceNews reports.

Here to stay … “I’m always optimistic, but it’s extremely challenging,” Neuenschwander said. “We are probably facing the biggest challenge for the European space transportation sector since the last failure of Ariane 5, in 2002.” Regardless of the financial challenges, however, ESA officials reiterated that Europe will remain in the business of launching its own rockets. Overall, Arianespace is targeting 12 launches this year. (submitted by Ken the Bin and Unrulycow)

India targets midsummer for reusable second-stage test. “We are working on a reusable launch technology in order to recover the first and second stages of a rocket so that we can reuse them to cut cost and carry heavier payloads,” the chairman of India’s space organization, Kailasavadivoo Sivan, told Times of India. The first stage will land like SpaceX’s Falcon 9 rocket, but the second stage will be shaped like a miniature space shuttle, gliding back to Earth and landing on a runway.

A helicopter test … Sometime in June or July, the Indian official said, a helicopter will drop a mock-up of the second-stage shuttle from a “considerable height” to determine its ability to glide back to Earth. An additional test from orbit would be conducted at a later date. This is an interesting approach to rocket reusability, so we’ll look forward to this test with interest.

SpaceFund rates the “reality” of launch companies. A new effort led by some new space pioneers has published a rating system for the credibility of launch providers. In its own words, “The SpaceFund Reality rating is an effort to provide critical, intelligent, and non-biased information about the status of the growing space industry and to make as much of this data available to the public as possible.”

An interesting start … Companies are rated on a scale from 9 (hello SpaceX, United Launch Alliance, and others) to 0 (mostly un-funded startups you’ve probably never heard of). The SpaceFund “should not be used as the sole basis of any business, investment, or partnership decision.” It is not clear how this effort will handle conflicts of interest, but we do appreciate the effort to bring some clarity to this diverse and rapidly changing launch industry. Although some will certainly quibble with the ratings, it strikes us as a reasonable first stab at a moving target.

Test stand for SLS rocket “Green Run” almost complete. Activation of the B-2 test stand at Stennis Space Center in Mississippi for the “Green Run” test campaign of the first Space Launch System Core Stage is almost complete. NASA and its contractor workforce are moving into practice and simulations of the upcoming tests while finishing up remaining tasks, NASASpaceFlight.com reports.

Test may occur in about a year … The B-2 test stand has been previously used for Saturn, Shuttle, and Delta 4 stage tests. During the “Green Run” test, the entire SLS core stage will be fired to simulate a launch of the vehicle and ascent into space. It is one of the major milestones in preparing the SLS rocket for launch. NASA has yet to set a date for the test, which could occur at the end of 2019 or early 2020. (submitted by Ken the Bin)

ULA sets new date for Delta IV Heavy flight. After multiple delays, United Launch Alliance said this week that “everything is progressing” toward the Delta IV Heavy launch carrying the NROL-71 mission for the National Reconnaissance Office. The mission is set to lift off on a Delta IV Heavy rocket on Saturday, January 19, from Space Launch Complex-6 at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California.

Ready to go? … Launch time is 11:05am local, Pacific Time. Weather currently is 60 percent go. This is an important mission for ULA, which was originally scheduled to be launched in September before being scrubbed for various technical and weather reasons, including a hydrogen leak, in December. Watching a Delta IV Heavy launch is always good value.

Vulcan rocket design “nearly fully mature.” United Launch Alliance will conduct the final design review for its new flagship Vulcan rocket within months, it said on Wednesday, Reuters reports. “The design is nearly fully mature,” ULA systems test engineer Dane Drefke said during a tour of Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The final design review is a critical step toward reaching Vulcan’s first flight in early 2021.

Job cuts done now … According to the report, ULA has started cutting and building hardware, and it has begun structural and pressure testing at its Decatur, Alabama, factory. Engineers were also modifying the Florida launchpad and tower to accommodate Vulcan. ULA does not envision more job cuts and has been adding engineers in Florida and elsewhere. “We are now optimal-sized,” Drefke said, adding that ULA will be hiring more engineers as it moves into production. (submitted by BH)

Next three launches

Jan. 19: Delta IV Heavy | NROL-71 | Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. | 19:05 UTC

Jan. 21: Long March 11 | Jilin-1 (imaging satellites) | Jiuquan, China | TBD

Jan. 24: PSLV | Microsat-R mission | Sriharikota, India | 18:08 UTC

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